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Showing posts with label American. Show all posts
Showing posts with label American. Show all posts

Monday, February 18, 2019

Presidents Day - Presidents Speak for Themselves, A Reflection


Presidents are human beings.

They have all been men (so far), flawed men, everyone who has ever held the office.

Some have had heroic attributes. All of them have had craven moments.

There have only been forty-four of them, until now, now we are living through the chaotic presidency of the 45th.

A couple of other presidents have barely made it into office, only a handful have won the office while failing to earn the popular vote, the 45th is one of them.

The forty-third was appointed by the Supreme Court, the first time that ever happened.

Nevertheless, all of our presidents have legitimately held the office…until now.

Today the occupant of the oval office, is the forty-fifth president. When he took the oath of office I was prepared to accept him, even though he lost the popular vote. I was prepared to accept him, but now I cannot, because there is certain intrigue surrounding his victory; foreign interference by the Russians, domestic malfeasance, the conspiracy of his campaign to collude with the Russians and defraud the people of the United States.

I was prepared to accept him, just as I had accepted Regan, and Bush who were also elected to the highest office, without my support, or my enthusiasm, or my vote.

I accepted them because I believed that they would uphold the rule of law (even though plenty of illegal things were done during their administration, done in their name, done in the name of the American people).

Despite that I believed they would support the American system, the separation of powers, the separation of Church and State, the freedom of the press, and an independent judiciary.

By and large, they did.

The forty-fifth president has not, and will not.

Donald Trump is seeking to undermine the courts, at every turn. He actively undermines our institutions, and works to undermine the rule of law.

He dismantle our alliances, pulling out of treaties, starting trade wars, usurping the powers of Congress, and lying through his teeth, to the American people, about what he is doing and what his motives are.

His latest outrage is to declare a National Emergency so that he can manage a political problem.

He has assumed emergency powers, this is the path to a dictatorship.

Consider George Washington, did you know that the city of Cincinnati was named after him. Cincinnati was named after Washington because in his day our first President was affectionately called “The Modern Cincinnatus,” a Roman general from the time of the Republic, (c. 519 – c. 430 BCE), who was granted emergency powers by the Senate of Rome, twice, so that he could defend the Republic. He was declared to be the Imperator and given supreme authority, each time upon the resolution of his mission he laid that power down.

In the same way George Washington set the standards for all future presidents, by refusing to be called anything other than Mr. President, eschewing such titles as Highness, Majesty, Excellency. He served two terms, and then laid down the gauntlet of power, suggesting that to hold power longer would lead the country to an imperial presidency.

Forty-five presidencies later, we are faced with the criminal and corrupt regime of Donald J. Trump.  

It is the duty of any person who has ever sworn the oath to protect and defend the Constitution of the United States, to oppose this man and his illegal activities now.

He has called the free press an enemy of the people.

This kind of rhetoric makes him a threat to the Republic. The power of his office makes him a threat to humankind

Donald Trump should listen to the words of these presidents, and we should listen to him. We should take seriously the things he says and does in our name.

The words of the presidents:

1st George Washington (Two Terms)
“If men are to be precluded from offering their sentiments on a matter…reason is of no use to us; the freedom of speech may be taken away, and dumb and silent we may be led, like sheep, to the slaughter.”
A Real President - April 30, 1789 - March 4th, 1797

2nd John Adams
“The liberty of the press is essential to the security of the state.”
A Real President - March 4th, 1797 - March 4th, 1801

3rd Thomas Jefferson (Two Terms)
"The only security of all is in a free press. The force of public opinion cannot be resisted when permitted freely to be expressed. The agitation it produces must be submitted to. It is necessary, to keep the waters pure."
A Real President - March 4th, 1801 - March 4th, 1809

4th James Madison (Two Terms)
“Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.”
A Real President - March 4, 1809 - March 4th, 1817

5th James Monroe (Two Terms and Last of the Founders)
“Free people seldom intrigue together; because there is no motive for it. Between the leaders however of a free people, and the neighboring monarchs, such intrigues have often taken place, and always will take place, whilst liberty is odious to monarchs, and men can be found base enough to betray her.”
A Real President - March 4, 1817 - March 4th, 1825

6th John Quincy Adams (Lost the Popular Vote)
“The freedom of the press should be inviolate.”
President - March 4, 1825 - March 4th, 1829

7th Andrew Jackson (Two Terms)
“As long as our government is administered for the good of the people, and is regulated by their will; as long as it secures to us the rights of persons and of property, liberty of conscience, and of the press, it will be worth defending.”
March 4th, 1829 - March 4th, 1837

8th Martin Van Buren          
“There is a power in public opinion in this country - and I thank God for it: for it is the most honest and best of all powers - which will not tolerate an incompetent or unworthy man to hold in his weak or wicked hands the lives and fortunes of his fellow-citizens.”:
A Real President - March 4th, 1837 - March 4th, 1841

9th William Henry Harrison 
“There is no part of the means placed in the hands of the Executive which might be used with greater effect for unhallowed purposes than the control of the public press. The maxim which our ancestors derived from the mother country that "the freedom of the press is the great bulwark of civil and religious liberty" is one of the most precious legacies which they have left us. We have learned, too, from our own as well as the experience of other countries, that golden shackles, by whomsoever or by whatever pretense imposed, are as fatal to it as the iron bonds of despotism. The presses in the necessary employment of the Government should never be used "to clear the guilty or to varnish crime." A decent and manly examination of the acts of the Government should be not only tolerated, but encouraged.”
A Real President - March 4th, 1841 - April 4th, 1841

10th John Tyler
“The guaranty of religious freedom, of the freedom of the press, of the liberty of speech, of the trial by jury, of the habeas corpus…will be enjoyed by millions yet unborn…”   
A Real President - April 4th, 1841 - March 4th, 1845

11th James K. Polk   
”Thank God, under our Constitution there was no connection between Church and State, and that in my action as President of the United States I recognized no distinction of creeds in my appointments office.”
A Real President - March 4th, 1845 - March 4th, 1849

12th Zachary Taylor 
“As American freemen, we cannot but sympathize in all efforts to extend the blessings of civil and political liberty, but at the same time, we are warned by the admonitions of history and the voice of our own beloved Washington to abstain from entangling alliances with foreign nations.”
A Real President - March 4th, 1849 - July 9th, 1849

13th Millard Fillmore
“The law is the only sure protection of the weak, and the only efficient restraint upon the strong.”
“Church and state should be separate, not only in form, but fact - religion and politics should not be mingled.”
A Real President - July 9th, 1850 - March 4th, 1853

14th Franklin Pierce 
“While men inhabiting different parts of this vast continent cannot be expected to hold the same opinions, they can unite in a common objective and sustain common principles.”
A Real President - March 4th, 1853 - March 4th, 1857

15th James Buchanan           
“The country is indebted for the clause prohibiting Congress from passing any law respecting an establishment of religion or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press or of the right of petition. To this we are also indebted for the bill of rights which secures the people against any abuse of power by the Federal Government.”
A Real President - March 4th, 1857 - March 4th, 1861


16th Abraham Lincoln (Assassinated, Ended Slavery)     
“Whenever this effect shall be produced among us; whenever the vicious portion of [our] population shall be permitted to gather in bands of hundreds and thousands, and burn churches, ravage and rob provision stores, throw printing-presses into rivers, shoot editors, and hang and burn obnoxious persons at pleasure and with impunity, depend upon it, this government cannot last. By such things the feelings of the best citizens will become more or less alienated from it, and thus it will be left without friends, or with too few, and those few too weak to make their friendship effectual. At such a time, and under such circumstances, men of sufficient talent and ambition will not be wanting to seize the opportunity, strike the blow, and overturn that fair fabric which for the last half century has been the fondest hope of the lovers of freedom throughout the world.”
A Real President - March 4th, 1861 - April 15th, 1865

17th Andrew Johnson (Impeached)
“Notwithstanding a mendacious press; notwithstanding a subsidized gang of hirelings who have not ceased to traduce me, I have discharged all my official duties and fulfilled my pledges.”
Impeached President - April 15th, 1865 - March 4th, 1869

18th Ulysses S. Grant (Two Terms)
“Let us labor to add all needful guarantees for the more perfect security of free thought, free speech, and free press, pure morals, unfettered religious sentiments, and of equal rights and privileges to all men, irrespective of nationality, color, or religion.”
A Real President - March 4th, 1869 - March 4th, 1877

19th Rutherford B. Hayes (Lost the Popular Vote)           
“I am not liked as a President by the politicians in office, in the press, or in Congress. But I am content to abide the judgment the sober second thought of the people.”
"But at the basis of all prosperity, for that as well as for every other part of the country, lies the improvement of the intellectual and moral condition of the people. Universal suffrage should rest upon universal education. To this end, liberal and permanent provision should be made for the support of free schools by the State governments, and, if need be, supplemented by legitimate aid from national authority."
President - March 4th, 1877 - March 4th, 1881

20th James A. Garfield (Assassinated)        
“In the long, fierce struggle for freedom of opinion, the press, like the Church, counted its martyrs by thousands.”
A Real President - March 4th, 1881 - September, 1881

21st Chester A. Arthur
“If it were not for the reporters, I would tell you the truth.”
A Real President - September 19th, 1881 - March 4th, 1885

22nd and 24th Grover Cleveland (Elected Twice, Serving Two Non-consecutive Terms)          
“Officeholders are the agents of the people, not their masters. Not only is their time and labor due to the government, but they should scrupulously avoid in their political action, as well as in the discharge of their official duty, offending by a display of obtrusive partisanship their neighbors who have relations with them as public officials.”
A Real President - March 4th, 1885 - March 4th, 1889, March 4th, 1893 - March 4th, 1897

23rd Benjamin Harrison (Lost the Popular Vote)  
“God forbid that the day should ever come when, in the American mind, the thought of man as a 'consumer' shall submerge the old American thought of man as a creature of God, endowed with 'unalienable rights'.”
President - March 4th, 1889 - March 4th, 1893

25th William McKinley (Assassinated)        
“Equality of rights must prevail, and our laws be always and everywhere respected and obeyed. We may have failed in the discharge of our full duty as citizens of the great Republic, but it is consoling and encouraging to realize that free speech, a free press, free thought, free schools, the free and unmolested right of religious liberty and worship, and free and fair elections are dearer and more universally enjoyed to-day than ever before. These guaranties must be sacredly preserved and wisely strengthened. The constituted authorities must be cheerfully and vigorously upheld.”
A Real President - March 4th, 1897 - September 14th, 1901

26th Theodore Roosevelt (Two Terms)       
“To announce that there must be no criticism of the President, or that we are to stand by the President, right or wrong, is not only unpatriotic and servile, but is morally treasonable to the American public.”
A Real President - September 19th, 1901 - March 4th, 1909

27th William Howard Taft   
“The intoxication of power rapidly sobers off in the knowledge of its restrictions and under the prompt reminder of an ever-present and not always considerate press, as well as the kindly suggestions that not infrequently come from Congress.”
A Real President - March 4th, 1909 - March 4th, 1913

28th Woodrow Wilson (Oversaw the end of Women’s Sufferage)           
“Publicity is one of the purifying elements of politics. Nothing checks all the bad practices of politics like public exposure.”
A Real President - March 4th, 1913 - March 4th 1921

29th Warren G. Harding      
"We must not abridge the freedom of speech, the freedom of press, or the freedom of assembly because there is no promise in repression."
A Real President - March 4th, 1921 - August 2nd, 1923

30th Calvin Coolidge 
“The freedom of the human mind is recognized in the right to free speech and free press. The public schools have made education possible for all and ignorance a disgrace.”
A Real President - August 2nd, 1923 - March 4th, 1929

31st Herbert Hoover 
“Absolute freedom of the press to discuss public questions is a foundation stone of American liberty.”
A Real President - March 4th, 1929 - March 4th, 1933

32nd Franklin D. Roosevelt (Four Terms)
“Freedom of conscience, of education, or speech, of assembly are among the very fundamentals of democracy and all of them would be nullified should freedom of the press ever be successfully challenged.”
A Real President - March 4th, 1933 - April 12th, 1945

33rd Harry S. Truman (Two Terms)
“Once a government is committed to the principle of silencing the voice of opposition, it has only one way to go, and that is down the path of increasingly repressive measures, until it becomes a source of terror to all its citizens and creates a country where everyone lives in fear."
A Real President - April 12th, 1945 - January 20th, 1953

34th Dwight D. Eisenhower (Two Terms – Hero of the Second World War)     
"Censorship, in my opinion, is a stupid and shallow way of approaching the solution to any problem. Though sometimes necessary, as witness a professional and technical secret that may have a bearing upon the welfare and very safety of this country, we should be very careful in the way we apply it, because in censorship always lurks the very great danger of working to the disadvantage of the American nation."
A Real President - January 20th, 1953 - January 20th, 1961

35th John F. Kennedy (Assassinated)
“Without debate, without criticism, no Administration and no country can succeed-and no republic can survive. That is why the Athenian law-maker Solon decreed it a crime for any citizen to shrink from controversy. And that is why our press was protected by the First Amendment--the only business in America specifically protected by the Constitution--not primarily to amuse and entertain, not to emphasize the trivial and the sentimental, not to simply "give the public what it wants"--but to inform, to arouse, to reflect, to state our dangers and our opportunities, to indicate our crises and our choices, to lead, mold, educate and sometimes even anger public opinion.”
A Real President - January 20th, 1961 - November 22nd, 1963


36th Lyndon B. Johnson (Two Terms, Passed the Civil Rights Act)       
“Democracy is a constant tension between truth and half-truth and, in the arsenal of truth, there is no greater weapon than fact.”
A Real President - November 22nd, 1963 - January 20th 1969

37th Richard Nixon (Two Terms, Resigned)          
“You won't have Nixon to kick around anymore, because, gentlemen, this is my last press conference.” ~ Last press conference before resignation…
Resigned the Presidency amid Charges of Corruption and Obstruction of Justice
January 20th, 1969 - August 9th, 1974

38th Gerald Ford (Un-elected)         
“I believe in the first amendment and the absolute necessity of a free press.”
President - August 9th, 1974 - January 20th 1977

39th Jimmy Carter    
“When people are intimidated about having their own opinions, oppression is at hand.”
“We live in a time of transition, an uneasy era which is likely to endure for the rest of this century. During the period we may be tempted to abandon some of the time-honored principles and commitments which have been proven during the difficult times of past generations. We must never yield to this temptation. Our American values are not luxuries, but necessities - not the salt in our bread, but the bread itself.”
A Real President - January 20th, 1977 - January 20th, 1981

40th Ronald Reagan (Two Terms)  
“The First Amendment was not written to protect people and their laws from religious values. It was written to protect those values from government tyranny.”
A Real President - January 20th, 1981 - January 20th, 1989



41st George H. W. Bush       
We know what works: Freedom works. We know what's right: Freedom is right. We know how to secure a more just and prosperous life for man on Earth: through free markets, free speech, free elections, and the exercise of free will unhampered by the state.”
A Real President - January 20th, 1989 - January 20th, 1993

42nd Bill Clinton (Two Terms, Impeached but not Removed)
“The road to tyranny, we must never forget, begins with the destruction of the truth.”
A Real President - January 20th, 1993 - January 20th, 2001

43rd George W. Bush (Two Terms, Lost the Popular Vote in the First)
"I consider the media to be indispensable to democracy…that we need the media to hold people like me to account. I mean, power can be very addictive and it can be corrosive and it's important for the media to call to account people who abuse their power, whether it be here or elsewhere.”
A Real President - January 20th, 2001 - January, 20th 2009

44th Barack Obama (Two Terms)   
“We have to uphold a free press and freedom of speech -- because, in the end, lies and misinformation are no match for the truth.”
A Real President - January 20th, 2009 - January 20th, 2017

45th Donald Trump (Lost the Popular Vote, Elected with the Aid of a Foreign Adversary)
“The FAKE NEWS media (failing @nytimes, @NBCNews, AABC, @CBS, @CNN) is not my enemy, it is the enemy of the American People!”
A Fake President, Failing - January 20th, 2017 – One year and one month in, and it cannot be over soon enough.

These words speak for themselves. One of these quotes is not like the others.
The despot uttered it should be removed from office, not because he made this statement, but for this sentiment and his many other crimes.
Impeach!


Remember This:
“Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.”
-          U.S. Constitution, First Amendment

Monday, January 21, 2019

Holiday - Martin Luther King Day


Martin Luther King Day 2019
Monday, January 21st

 

Today we celebrate the life and work of the Reverend Doctor, Martin Luther King Jr., a man who more than any other fulfilled the role of prophet, as a voice of conscience, and like so many prophets before him, he was killed for speaking the truth.

He was a prophet, not in the sense that he saw the future (though he did), that is not what a prophet is. A prophet is not a seer, or an augurer He was not a prophet in the sense that he had a unique channel to God, the creator of the universe, or that God spoke to him in a privileged way.
God speaks to all of us in the same way.

Martin Luther King had no more, and no less access to supernatural powers than any of us, what made him different was that he chose to listen.

He listened to the voice of God that speaks to each and every one of us. He heard the voice of God speaking that speaks to all of us in the hidden chambers of our hearts, and he responded to the call, by cleaving to the message and sharing it with the world.

There are many memes circulating today of the good Reverend Doctor, memes like the picture I have pasted at the beginning of this essay.

Today we are given countless opportunities to reflect on his likeness, to consider his words, to reflect on their meaning, and on the life of an American Saint, if there ever was one, and we are wise to do so.

We are wise to remember the man, Martin Luther King Jr., a rare person whose measure exceeded the ordinary flaws that make us all human, he lived beyond them.

Martin Luther King Jr. transcended even death, though he was taken by the assassin’s bullet. He lives now in our collective consciousness, our collective conscience, in our global psyche, speaking to us from the dimension of myth; a human being more than human, a child of God a overflowing with grace and wisdom, sharing its cup so that upon drinking we may aspire to the same.

He spoke truth to power, and gave hope to the powerless.

He was once considered to be the most dangerous man in America, and from the he became our most beloved hero, the prime exemplar of what it means to be an American.

He was beaten and arrested dozens of times, for the crime of seeking justice.

His life was threatened daily. His reputation was smeared without regard for the truth, or appreciation for his selfless works.

He was killed for his efforts, shot down, but not destroyed.

He was, and continues to be an example to us all.

Our prophet, The Reverend Doctor still points the way, lighting the long journey that still lies ahead of us.


Saturday, June 30, 2018

Regrets - Editorial, The Week in Review


Analysis, Commentary, Opinion
06.30.2018

Regrets


I spent the last half of this week listening to the leaders and spokespeople for the Democratic Party talk at length about their plans to try and stop the appointment of the next Supreme Court Justice by Donald Trump.

It is nauseating.

The prospect of this illegitimate president appointment a second justice is nauseating.

The lack of unity on the left is even more nauseating.

This, and all of the rest of the social and political travesties that have been perpetrated on the American people are what happens when liberals and progressives fall apart and fall away from each other because the favorite causes of one group are at odds with the favorite causes of another group and any talk of compromise is treated as a betrayal of a person’s core values.

The Supreme Court was on the ballot in 2016, but Bernie Sanders’s and his supporters would not relent. Even after Bernie endorsed the Clinton candidacy a good number of his supporters, ran into the trap that had been laid out for them by Vladimir Putin’s puppet leftist, Jill Stein.

It was sickening.

The Supreme Court was on the Ballot then. The republican majority in the senate were refusing to even give President Obama’s pick to fill the vacancy a hearing, let alone take a vote, and they got away with it.

The senate denied President Obama’s candidate. Trump got elected, he appointed an arch-conservative to the court, and he is about to do it again.

It is nauseating, to listen to pundits on the left, office holders and activists pretend like the standard which the Republican majority leader in the Senate, Mitch Mc Connell, used to justify his refusal to give President Obama’s candidate a vote, to pretend that they should be able to hold Mitch Mc Connell to that standard now; no appoints to the Supreme Court in an election year.

I have some news for them, they should shut their mouths.

Mitch Mc Connell has zero credibility, no intellectual honesty, we cannot expect fairness or consistency from him on anything. The only principle he will adhere to is the principle of doing the bidding of his masters. It is the only reason he holds the position he holds.

Mitch Mc Connell hates the American people, hates our democratic institutions, hates America, he is a feckless villain, who has ceded the power of his office and the authority of the Senate to a man who is willing to destroy the country for the satisfaction of his vanity, and his all-cosuming greed.

To all my liberal friends who are crying now, if you are in that group that only ever offered tepid support to Hillary Clinton. If you cried and whined, about having to compromise your values at the voting booth. If you pushed stories from Russian Bots and Trolls against her candidacy. If you did not vote at all, or if you voted for Stein, then I am sad for you in this moment, because I am sad for what this moment means to our country…but really, this is your nightmare.

Do not tell me that Hillary lost because she ran a terrible campaign…I do not want to hear that. She did, so what. She is a terrible campaigner, but she was a good policy wonk, her candidacy was never about her personality, it was based on her ability to be an effective administrator…and oh, by the way, she won the popular vote, she won more votes than any other candidate in history.

Take a look at the Republicans and the right wing of the American electorate. They are in the minority, there are fewer of them than there are of us, by they are unified, they march in lock step, and that is why they win.

If we cannot learn from that, organize and get out the vote, compromise and push our agenda forward, then we get what we get: a criminal regime, the destruction of the international order, the ruination of the country and the degradation of the constitution.

Monday, May 28, 2018

Memorial Day


Memorial Day is a day set aside for reflection. It is a day meant for us to honor our fallen dead.

The meaning of Memorial Day has changed a great deal since it was founded. At its inception, it was meant to honor African American soldiers who fought and died in the Civil War, both  our soldiers who were born-free, as well as those who were former slaves, men and women, mothers and fathers, sons and daughters who gave everything they had, to keep the union whole.

Memorial Day was created to honor those who died for an America which they only dreamed could exist. They died for these United States, for a vision of it, but they got something different, they got this reality, an America that is still in a state of becoming.

Those men and women died for us, for good or ill, they died for us.

We have yet to repay them, we have yet to fulfill their hopes for the America they dreamt of; America, daughter of liberty, America the true, arbiter of justice.

Now, we honor our dead on this day; our soldiers and sailors and airmen, our police and firefighters; we honor them.

We honor all of our citizens who spent their lives, who gave their days to public service; we honor our doctors and nurses and teachers, the good works of our ordinary citizens, of our friends and neighbors, we honor everyone’s sacrifices; known and unknown, and those yet to come.

This year we must honor teachers, in Santa Fe, Texas; in Parkland, Florida; and elsewhere, who stood in the way of gunfire to protect their students and paid for it with their lives.

We must honor them, and their sacrifice, they died upholding our most cherished values, in recognition of the fact that we are one people, that we are descended from many nations, and that we each come into the world with the absolute right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, and that all other rights are subordinate to these. 

On this day of all days, do not make the mistake of thinking that it is our service women and men who keep us free. It has been at least sixty years since America faced an “existential” threat from a foreign power.


We do not face such a threat right now; not from Iran, not from North Korea, not from Russia, not from anywhere.

The real threat we face is from ourselves, from our ignorance, and from our fear.

It is we, and we alone who can protect us from ourselves.

Our own apathy, prejudice, and hatred, these are the most dangerous forces aligned against us, against our freedom. They are more deadly than any other worldly power.

To honor our fallen dead, you must do your part to keep us free. You must participate in our democracy.

Vote, stay informed, organize, build alliances, and collaborate.

Our collective failure as citizens of the Unites States has allowed a criminal, autocratic, demagogue to hold power in the White House, allowed the Supreme Court to state that corporations are to be treated as people, and money regarded as free speech, while those same justices have told ordinary American’s that their right to free speech does not include the right to be heard, and that our right to vote does not include the guarantee that our votes will be counted.

This rank cynicism is more dangerous to our freedom than any rag tag group of militants half way around the world, more dangerous than immigrants looking for a better life on our side of our border, as my own forebears did when they came here a little over a hundred years ago.

Honor our fallen dead. Not with cards and flowers and barbeques (but do those things because they are good), honor them by standing up to racism and bigotry, to religious zealotry and corporate greed, to scientific ignorance and xenophobia, to corruption in our public officials, in our highest offices, and to the notion that the right to keep and bear arms does not include our responsibility to regulate them.

Honor them by participating in our public discourse. Do not lose heart, and do not give up.

We must rebuild America, reform our institutions, for the sake of Americans and our future generations. We must take responsibility for your own freedom.

Honor the fallen, in this way.

Jay P. Botten, Veteran, U.S.N., Hospital Corps, 1990 – 1994

Given 1st 2015.05.25

Revised 2016.05.3, Revised 2017.05.29

Revised 2017.05.28